I am in a position of fairly visible leadership. I have written books and articles and blog posts as well. I am fair game for critics. I should expect criticisms.

I respond to some of the criticisms; some of them I don’t. I have my reasons for each, though I know I am often fallible in my judgment on those matters.

My Emotional Reaction to Criticism

Though I may be setting myself up for admitting it, I confess that I am a relatively thin-skinned person. Criticisms make me feel lousy. More times than I would like to admit, I get defensive when I encounter criticisms. My first reaction is to respond with my own heated rhetoric. That is why I usually hold to my own twenty-four hour rule: Don’t respond until twenty-four hours have passed. If I wait a day, I will respond more reasonably; or I will elect not to respond at all.

So why have I allowed myself to lead an organization and write books and articles when I know I’m opening myself up for criticisms? How does a thin-skinned introvert allow these things to happen? Good questions. I haven’t figured them out myself. One possible answer is that I am really stupid. In fact, I think that is the more logical answer.

The Other Side of Criticisms

But I began this article with the title clearly stating that I’m speaking directly to my critics. Please allow me to do so.

Despite my fleshly weaknesses in dealing with you critics, I really owe you my deepest appreciation. You remind me that I am fallible, and that I should never think I can do or say things well in my own power. If I become proud because I think I’ve accomplished something significant, you offer me balance and perspective.

Many of you who are critical of me are right, and I am wrong. I need to remember that. When I come to the haughty conclusion that I am an expert or person of influence, you remind me that there are millions of people smarter than I am, wiser than I am, and more godly than I am.

Some of you are critical of me because you are hurting. I am connected to something or have said something that has caused you pain. Instead of being defensive to you, I need to be more pastoral, more Christ-like, and more concerned. I need to see past the anger and to see the child of God that you are.

Thank You

Please allow me to conclude with a few painful truths. First, I am fearful that this article will open me up to more criticisms. I should rejoice when God uses you as an instrument to humble me, but I am still weak and fearful. Second, I don’t want to pretend that this article is some type of resolution that will make me the perfect recipient of criticisms. I know I will still fail and continue to struggle with my weaknesses.

But I do want you to know, critics, that I thank you for your words of admonition. I have a strange relationship with you. I dread you and I need you. There will be times when I am right and you are wrong. But there will be many times when you are right and I am wrong.

Could I boldly ask you to do one thing for me if you are my critic? It is unfair to ask anything of you since you are already disappointed in me, my words, or my actions. Will you pray that I will have God-given wisdom to deal with those who disagree with me? Only in His strength can I ever hope to be the kind of leader He wants me to be.

Thank you, critics. I really do appreciate you.

Strange words from me. Strange words indeed.


  1. says

    If I say that’s a display of humility I might tempt you to pride, just kidding. Thanks Thom… the way up is the way down, to be last is to be first. Very loving and mature way to respond to criticism. On another note Thom I am a former LDS member and have been a strong advocate for “The Unexpected Journey,” I call it an apologetic of the heart. I share my testimony is this podcast, found here:


    Grace be with you,


  2. says

    Thank you so much for this posting! Being still relatively new to pastoring and getting used to critics this article helped me today. I have one particular critic that has been at me since the beginning. She even once told me quite plainly she doesn’t trust me and there was no particular reason for it, just is the situation. Although she does it with a smile on her face she is one of the most critical, negative, undermining people I have ever met in my life. Everything in me dislikes her and I truly struggle to see her with the eyes of a pastor. I think I am going to print this article out and tape it up next to my desk as a reminder.

  3. says

    This is yet another example of why you are a great leader whom God has raised up and given as a gift to the SBC and the larger Christian family. May all of us follow your example and appreciate the work God does in us in uncomfortable ways. Thanks, Thom.

    • JerijoCox says

      Thanks for those transparent words. They are a reflection of spiritual maturity, and an inspiration to others. Who doesn’t deal with critics on some level? I admire the way you gracefully handle the level of criticism you encounter regularly! We appreciate your work and leadership!

  4. Sean Posr says

    Dr. Lawless’ and your blog posts are some of the most helpful around. Thank you for that. I don’t count myself as a critic, but I will pray for you brother.

  5. says

    One more reason why I read (and profit from) your blog. I am still learning these lessons myself and I appreciate the reminder. You are much more gracious than I am, though I have grown much in this area. One thing that has helped me is remembering that the ones who vocally oppose you are usually fewer than those who support you and pray for you and love you.

    I pray God bless you and keep you, Thom.

  6. says

    I served in SBC denominational work for 25 years.

    Thanks for the reminder that, if we humble ourselves (this is what the Bible directs), it is more than not that, our critics that point out where we need to grow.

    Joseph said to his brother, “What you meant for harm, God intended for good.” In that vain I would like to thank my critics for the help. I am better because of them.

    Thanks Thom for being a leader on this. Also, if your don’t mind, a word of criticism ;) , you should have done it sooner.

    Dean Finley

  7. Kate Barnett says

    Great advise to all! We all suffer from often unjust criticism …. the 99 agrees do not hold as much weight with the “thin skin” as the one disagree when there is great strength in it!!
    The “24 hour rule” works many wonders for both sides!!


  8. Scott Carson says

    I will never understand the need that so many have to criticize. Dialogue and working through in a gracious way maybe…but criticism. Especially heavy handed or petty criticism makes absolutel no sense to me and I think probably is the sin of pride on the part of the critics.

    Thom, I appreciate your gracious spirit and attitude. I try to have the same…don’t always succeed.

    What struck me though is that your columns are free! Why would I criticize a free gift? If I continually disagreed with you, I’d stop reading you. If enough people stopped reading you, you’d probably stop writing or change the direction. But to criticize a free gift seems very rude and even ungrateful.

    Then, I’d venture that most of your readers are pastors or ministry types. Most of us face a continual barrage of criticism and second guessing of our words, actions and ministries. Why in the world would I have any desire to do that to someone else?

    If anything, I feel guilty for not thanking you. Your materials are free. You have put them out there for the benefit of the Kingdom. You have insights and expertise that I will never in a million years have (well, maybe in a million). In fact, I have never read anything that you have written and not been stretched and challenged.

    I’m not the pastor of a large church. I’m just trying to be faithful (I’m starting my 26th year in the same church). Your books and articles help me not become complacent.

    So thank you Thom!! I think I at least owe you a lunch (really lots more than that). So if you’re ever in my area…

    God’s blessings on you my friend!

    Scott Carson
    Grace Church – Burlington, WI

    • Thom Rainer says

      You know what Scott!? You have “paid me back” many times over with your words today. I am keeping them before me as a reminder of how blessed I am. Thank you friend.

  9. Shane Robertson says

    Thank you for your words. As a pastor, I have recently taken some harsh criticism from just a handful of people in the local church where I serve. These words were an encouragement to me and are helping me look at this situation from different perspectives. I have to remember that God loves my critics and I need to look at them, love them, and pray for them through the eyes of Jesus. Thank you!

  10. W Roy Fisher says

    I commend you for your transparency in dealing with those who criticize you, and for sharing your personal insights concerning such. What you have shared is helpful to all of us – thank you!

  11. Lee Johnson says

    Hi Thom,

    Thank you for the good advice on dealing with criticism.

    I have a much smaller sphere of influence and like you I have found honesty, integrity, humility and love.

    Generally, even my critics appreciate these qualities… I find I am more vulnerable when I have some separate, secret or personal agenda driving my decisions and responses.

    My desire is to live openly and honestly before God and others.


  12. Rodger says


    Thanks for these timely words. I am beginning tomorrow as the transitional pastor of a very dysfunctional church with lots of critics. I am memorizing your responses for the deluge of criticism just ahead.


  13. says

    Many years ago I heard Doctor Bryant Hicks say that critics, or opponents, were “fiscalizers” who force us to slow down and determine God’s direction for our lives. That has been a great help to me over the years. Still doesn’t feel good but it seems to have purpose

  14. Tom Covington says

    As a young minister I thank you for this advice today (and always on your blog). In kids ministry there are far more critics than I imagined. I thank you for the reminder that often critics are “truth presented badly” but still truth that needs to be heard and faced.

  15. Scott says


    I was mildly surprised (and appreciative) of your transparency and openness in this post. The more I read the more I kept thinking “He’s talking about me!” I, too, am the introverted, thin-skinned type and have taken criticisms through the years (whether it be personal or as a pastor) much too personally. Yes, they bothered me because the criticisms would strike at the chink in my armor – the perceived need to be liked by everyone. Satan knows this and that’s where he tries to attack me as a leader. Through the years, however, of personal maturation, 25+ years as a pastor and Registered Nurse, and the Holy Spirit’s working on my heart, I have slowly come to realize that the most vociferous critics have deep-seated issues (spiritual or physical) that they have never resolved and that their criticisms of me are actually the outward manifestations of the battle going on inside of them. That is why I, like you, turn to prayer for them, and for me and I have learned to have the courage to confront them to try to find out what it is that is REALLY bothering them. One thing that I have learned in nursing, and eight years in a chemotherapy clinic, is that many times people’s words don’t convey what it truly going on deep within them. Getting to the core issue becomes a priority with me.

    Thanks for one of the best posts I have ever read and we appreciate all you have done for the kingdom, Thom. Absolutely love the HCSB.

    Until He Comes,
    Rev. Scott Davis, RN

    • Thom Rainer says

      I am really overwhelmed with your words Scott. Thank you for being an encourager even though you have been the recipient of criticisms yourself.

  16. Al says

    That’s a lousy way to respond to criticism, what a waste of time and pixels! You should be ashamed! Tell me what you really think tomorrow. Ok, ok, just kidding here! Excellent article and a great way of approaching criticism. The “death by a thousand paper cuts” probably claims its share of ministers. The real question is why the proliferation of sharp-tongued critics among God’s people. Blessings upon you, Thom, and keep up the good job!

  17. Margaret Ames says

    Dr Rainer,
    I’ve been reading your posts for about six months and I’ve learned a great deal from you. Thank you for using your experiences to help me. I’ve just begun working on a Master of Arts in Theological Studies, a dream this accountant has had for many years. I feel called into ministry and am finally opening myself to God. I just read that you graduated from Alabama. I’m a recent transplant to northern Alabama. My strongest spiritual gift is encouragement. I experience joy and love from encouraging others in their walk and struggles. It breaks my heart when I hear critics tearing down my pastor or other Christians. Thank you for teaching me how to deal with critics. I will pray for them and look past their anger to their pain now. I will begin praying for your critics and the pain they cause you. God is using you to teach and mentor me and I consider your writings to be one of the best I read. Thank you for sharing with me. I am grateful for the internet or I would never be exposed to such Godly men and women that completely without knowing your readers, you continue to change lives and disciple many people like me. Thank you brother Thom. It is my privilege to know you.

    Margaret Ames
    Huntsville, Alabama

    • Thom Rainer says

      Margaret –

      What a blessing you are! I have no doubt you have identified correctly your dominant spiritual gift. Keep using it; you have blessed me with it.

      God’s blessings in your MATS studies.

    • Thom Rainer says

      Thanks Stephen. Unfortunately my “better side” shows in my blog posts. I am really a struggler in many ways.

  18. J Michael Palmer says

    I ditto what Scott Carson said above. You have been one conduit of God’s grace into my life and ministry. Stay the course; your heart for Jesus is evident in all you do! I am deeply grateful for the investment of your life into the Gospel and into mine!

  19. says

    This is the most ridiculous post I have ever read! How could a man of your. . .

    Sorry, but I couldn’t resist.

    Let me join the others in saying that this is my favorite blog by a mile, and I appreciate the grace that you’ve shown today.

    Keep up the good work.

  20. Jonathon Grant says

    Dr. Thom,

    This may be a bit long, but it points to how vital your ministry through this Blog is to people in my situation, and many others I’m sure.

    During my career I have been an executive for companies large and small, private and public, for others and for myself. I have had the mansions and yachts and all of the other material things, which today I consider garbage.

    Nearly eight years ago, I was called form the Board Room to ministry and I could not resist His voice. God put me to work immediately, so I never had time for Seminary. I went to work helping to plant SBC churches in Central Florida, learning, teaching and preaching along the way. We were then lead to move to Michigan, where I worked in ministry full time for the past couple of years. I have been blessed with the ability to do this good work without compensation of any kind from the local churches. It has been humbling and a great honor and privilege.

    Over the past several years God has brought various people into my life to guide me as I go, whether in person or virtually, like through your Blog. Some have been exceptional teachers, others have been an encouragement by offering a shoulder to lean on or an ear to hear, or simply brothers in Christ opening doors so that I can answer the call God has on my life.

    This Blog is an important part of what keeps me humble, focused, motivated and moving forward. I have written here before that nobody writes so much that hits home so hard. You fearlessly tackle, or at least expose some of the most difficult issues facing the church today. You never pretend to have all the answers and you always seek feedback, even if it results in a harsh critique. Thank you for the lesson.

    Thom, I appreciate your humility, transparency and openness. I hope to continue to learn here and to participate as a source of encouragement for you and anyone else who is willing to stand center stage, proclaiming truth… while taking arrows.

    Though I have never met you, I am coming to know you as you openly share your heart on these pages.

    In His Grip-

    • Thom Rainer says

      Jonathon –

      I am almost at a loss for words for a change. I am incredibly humbled by your comments.

      I will say that one of the greatest rewards of this blog is the community that’s developing. You have become one of those people that have made the blog what it is today. You offer quick encouragement, but you speak your mind in a Christlike way. I always look forward to your comments.

      Thank you friend.

  21. says

    Thom, thanks for this great article. As a pastor who has endured some pretty painful criticism, I have to say that this challenged me to view it in an entirely different light. Thank you.

    I have to also say that I’m scratching my head trying to figure out why people are criticizing you. :-) I don’t see much in your ministry worth criticizing, but oh well….

  22. says

    God is not concerned at all about your shyness, introversion, insecurity, etc. He knows what He has gifted you to do and He anticipates your doing it. See, He KNOWS He’s able to sustain you and enable you, and all He requires is your obedience.

    1 Corinthians 2:17 in living color, in some degree or other.

    The 24-hour deal is good. I always ask myself “What if this is EXACTLY what God had in mind to happen?” The only answer to that, for me, is that He’s more interested in my reaction, than He is in the criticism. The 24 hours also gives one the time to assess whether there is any truth in the criticism, from which we can learn.

    Last, remember the old adage: “Pleasing everybody pleases nobody”.

  23. Danny Hedgepeth says

    Thanks for post and thanks for your investment in my life ten years ago. Looking back, can see the mosaic of our Lord’s plan.
    Appreciate transparency of sharing your processes for dealing with criticism. Meaningful for the Body of Christ, Christian leaders In economic marketplace, and combinations thereof.
    Your courageous leadership is appreciated.
    Danny Hedgepeth
    Athens, Georgia

  24. Larry Vowell says

    Lots of changes going on in the church with the senior adults, the young adults, music, leadership and other issues. Someone is responsible and it must be you….and me….and anyone who is trying to make a difference. I love your blog and share it often with others. You are right on in what you say and I thank you. For every critic, you have thousands who are supporting your comments and leadership.

  25. Leon says

    I have not read the replies to your post as yet, so what I am about to say may have already been stated. If so, I apologize. I don’t think any of us should not expect criticism, especially if we are in leadership positions. And I think criticism is necessary. But the one thing I try to do when disagreeing with anyone is to be sure that I do it in such a way as to not attack them. Too many critics are just downright mean. That is unbiblical, ungodly and unnecessary. I can take most any criticism if it is directed at me properly. I think most of us can. Proverb 15:1 (NIV) states: “A gentle answer turns away wrath, but a harsh word stirs up anger.” I will place you on my prayer list. May God bless you as you continue to help and support all of us who are just as fallible as you.

  26. Salafrance Underhill says

    For what it’s worth, as an introvert myself, I respect anyone who can overcome the tendency to avoid attention.

    It takes real courage.

  27. says

    Dr. Rainer,
    I wish I had had this letter in my files years ago! It would’ve been an awesome tool to pull out and read (ESPECIALLY when those anonymous letters would mysteriously show up) and a terrific model letter for those which were not so anonymous!

    Consider it saved to my Evernote files now!

  28. says

    I identify with this far too much. Why does God put thin-skinned people in leadership? In ministry? I’m too much like Peter and not enough like Christ too often. Thanks for letting me know I’m not alone. This was beautifully said. I do so much want to walk with God, to be someone He can trust, to be someone after His own heart, but there is a price, isn’t there? And that price, I believe, is humility in its purest form. And yet, we are human, full of ourselves, and not full enough of Him. What a struggle! And it will go on until we are made perfect with Him. God bless you as you wrestle with your humanity! I’m in the fight with you.

  29. Dick Lincoln says

    Model of vulnerability. Doubt it will affect critical types one way or another. It’s an outlook hard to change. It was a big help for all who think their critics or their situation are unique.Many Thanx to a big man in Christ.

  30. Jerry says

    It’s interesting that there are so many more critics than encouragers in the Christian community today. While not a critic of Thom, for all of us who fail by flexing our critical muscle, let’s focus on removing the beam from our own eye. Let us with the Psalmist cry, “show me any (every) wicked way in me.”

    There will be times when those close to me, those whom I have asked to keep me accountable, need to encourage me to improve. For those with whom I do not have this relationship, I need to fervently pray for them from the inside out: that strongholds be torn down, that they have eyes and ears to recognize the truth, that the shackles be removed and the prison doors incarcerating them be opened, and that they have receptive hearts to God’s leading, improvement, and correction. Only after I have prayed the same for myself and am sure of the Lord’s direction can I begin to give the uninvited critique and this speaking the truth in love. Let us remember…he who loves to speak the harsh truth loves harshness more than truth.

  31. says

    Thanks Thom,

    I admit I have never praised you for all the good things God has done through you but I have critiqued one of your posts of the past.

    May God grant me to follow your Christ like example in dealing with criticism

    • Thom Rainer says

      Thank you Justin for your kind words. And thanks for critiquing me in the past. I needed it then, and I need it now.

  32. Christiane says

    this helps me to reflect on my own sin of pride when under criticism, and it re-aligns my perspective for the good, so I’m sharing this and hope it helps anyone in need of it::

    “”O Jesus meek and humble of heart, Hear me.
    From the desire of being esteemed, Deliver me, Jesus.
    From the desire of being loved, Deliver me, Jesus.
    From the desire of being extolled, Deliver me, Jesus.
    From the desire of being honored, Deliver me, Jesus.
    From the desire of being praised, Deliver me, Jesus.
    From the desire of being preferred to others, Deliver me, Jesus.
    From the desire of being consulted, Deliver me, Jesus.
    From the desire of being approved, Deliver me, Jesus.
    From the fear of being humiliated, Deliver me, Jesus.
    From the fear of being despised, Deliver me, Jesus.
    From the fear of suffering rebukes, Deliver me, Jesus.
    From the fear of being forgotten, Deliver me, Jesus.
    From the fear of being ridiculed, Deliver me, Jesus.
    From the fear of being wronged, Deliver me, Jesus.
    From the fear of being suspected, Deliver me, Jesus.

    That others may be loved more than I,
    Jesus, grant me the grace to desire it.
    That others may be esteemed more than I,
    Jesus, grant me the grace to desire it.
    That in the opinion of the world, others may increase, and I may decrease,
    Jesus, grant me the grace to desire it.
    That others may be chosen and I set aside,
    Jesus, grant me the grace to desire it.
    That others may be praised and I unnoticed,
    Jesus, grant me the grace to desire it.
    That others may be preferred to me in everything,
    Jesus, grant me the grace to desire it.
    That others may become holier than I, provided that I become as holy as I should,
    Jesus, grant me the grace to desire it.”

    Written by Rafael Cardinal Merry del Val


    • Thom Rainer says

      Gary –

      I sometimes offer my opinion on the data :)

      Some of my critics also don’t like some of my leadership decisions at LifeWay.

  33. Nathan Millican says

    Dr. Rainer, I’ve watched you get critiqued in public (SBC in Phoenix) and witnessed as you exemplified grace/mercy in your response to a certain individual. I’ve seen you interact w/people at SBTS years ago and the man you are in public is the man I’ve seen in private…you my friend are unpretentious – what you see is what you get. For that I’m very grateful.

    Blessings to you Dr. Rainer.

  34. Ben says

    Your blog is the only one I read consistently. Always VERY helpful. Don’t let critics change you. You’re helping a lot of pastors like me.

  35. Mark says

    Just a question here: how does dealing with criticism in your position differ from that of a pastor, since you have been both? I am assuming that you have little face time or relationship with critics. As a pastor of a church in a small town I have to life with critics and some of them could probably get me fired if they wanted. Seems to me that one would related to a critic very differently when they can actually do harm to you and not just criticize from a distance. Thanks for any words of wisdom!

  36. Dave Menser says

    Dr. Trainer, I should expect an article like this from you. You are one of the most impressive men of God I have ever met. Your humility and loving spirit is an inspiration. You demonstrated this as Dean at Southern and continue it today. It was a privilege to learn from you then and I continue to learn from you still. I pray for you and you wife and kids regularly. I will try to model your response. Blessings

  37. says

    Thank you Dr. Rainer for your transparency & integrity. I will always remember my first impression of seminary class. You affirmed the authority of Scripture and the Supremacy of Christ in your intro. to Building An Evangelistic Church. God has used you to encourage me to be a Godly Pastor. Tomorrow I begin my 11th year at Calvary. This is a credit to the Faithfulness of God and the way He has used you to encourage me. Your faithfulness to your wife & sons has challenged me to be a Godly husband

  38. David Hooper says

    I approached this blog carefully… I read your blogs, and a few others because I love it when people challenge my thinking.

    I regularly arrive at the bottom of a blog feeling challenged, and grateful to the writer, only to be dismayed by the barrage of negativity and misunderstanding in the comments. Of course there is always some good comments too, but that simply causes arguments.

    Your response to critics is much more mature than mine often is (no surprise there)

    How refreshing it is to see 86 complimentary comments!!!! I am very happy!

    Do you know God is using your books, your blog and you, to help build a church in ‘outback’ Australia? Port Hedland, 1300 miles from our major city, Perth.

    Keep it up! You’re leaving a legacy.

    Regards, David Hooper.
    PS I would love to ask you about the possibility of putting together a survey along the lines of the one you used for “the Unchurched next door”, I think our demographic is similar but different to the USA.

  39. says

    Longtime listener first time caller, there is a difference bt a critic and a cynic, and whether hatred or help is intended. I suspect u r right more than u r wrong and appreciate free gift of ur writing. Jealousy is An undercurrent to hateful rhetoric too.

  40. says

    Beautiful, Thom. It’s so hard being criticized! I too am a “think-skinned introvert”. I think I’ll adopt your 24-hour rule.

    May God bless and sustain you in your leadership and in your life, now and always.

  41. Larry McKeon says

    Jesus had his critics too and they crucified him. We all have a cross to carry, and you carry yours well Thom. Just as Jesus intended you to carry it! Thanks for all you do!

  42. says

    A friend sent me a link to this post. I have encountered three pretty intense verbal attacks in the past 10 days, so she knew this would speak directly to my heart. The Lord has called me to speak truth on my blog. Sometimes it is truth that people don’t want to hear. So, it was with at least one of these verbal attacks. I’m not thin-skinned, but three in a row (2 very public and 2 from relatives) has me thrown a bit off kilter. I’ve chosen to step back from my blog and FB posting for a few weeks and seek the heart the God. I desire not only to allow Him to minister to my heart, but even more to hear from Him the things He desires for me to learn from these attacks. Thankfully, I have walked with the Lord long enough that I responded to each out of love, rather than hurt. Thank you for reminding me that I owe a debt of gratitude to those who criticize me. Awesome post!

  43. David says

    I have a question to keep us out of hot water. Is it appropriate to give the pastor an envelope full of cash for pastor appreciation month? Should it be in the form or a church check? Our church is a non profit in the state of Mississippi. What does the IRS have to say about this? I would appreciate any feedback.

    • Jerry says

      Tax wise…Yes, if: a) it didn’t pass through the church books, b) if it is from individuals and not from church funds, and c) no individual is given a tax deductible gift receipt for it. If these are true it is treated as a gift from individual to individual. If it goes through the church books it must be reported on the recipient’s W2 or 1099 depending on the relationship and whether total payment from the church for the year is $600 or more. Any gift designated through the church books to a specific individual is not a tax deductible donation. Exceptions to this can be made if, for example, one gives to the “staff love offering” trusting the church to disburse it as it decides. It still must be reported as taxable income for the recipient as previously stated.

  44. says

    My personal principle is to ask myself a question. “”Would it bless or hurt the Kingdom if it appeared on the front page of the paper?”

    Legality is important but so is the appearance of evil.


  1. […] A Note to Those Who Criticize Me “I am in a position of fairly visible leadership. I have written books and articles and blog posts as well. I am fair game for critics. I should expect criticisms.  I respond to some of the criticisms; some of them I don’t. I have my reasons for each, though I know I am often fallible in my judgment on those matters.” […]

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